Shared Parenting Information Group (SPIG) UK

- promoting responsible shared parenting after separation and divorce -

Parental Alienation Syndrome - articles

Comprehensive review of the literature about PAS - essential reading

other articles

Cartwright, Glen F. Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy. (1993) 21(3) p 205

Dunne, John ; Hedrick, Marsha The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. (1994) 21 (3/4) p21

Gardner, Richard A. Legal and Psychotherapeutic Approaches to the Three Types of Parental Alienation Syndrome Families: When Psychiatry and the Law Join Forces. Court Review. (1991) 28 (1) p 14

Gardner, Richard A. Addendum to: The Parental Alienation Syndrome: a guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals; (1992)

Lund, Mary A Therapist's View of Parental Alienation Syndrome. Family and Conciliation Courts Review. (1995) 33(3) p308

Palmer, Nancy Rainey Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy. (1989) 16(4) p361

Price, Joseph L.; Pioske, Kerry S. Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Developmental Analysis. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health (1994) 32(11) p9

This systematic denigration by one parent of the other, with the intent of alienating the child, is a symptom of depression and dependence.

Wood, L. Cheri The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Dangerous Aura of Reliability. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review. (1994) 27(4) p1367

Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) is a theoretical disorder in children that arises almost exclusively in child custody disputes. In most PAS cases the mother "programs" the children to hate the father - often leading to false allegations of sexual abuse. This Comment examines PAS theory in light of the causation problems raised by assigning blame in an area that psychologists and courts recognise as extremely uncertain. It also observes that there is no empirical evidence supporting the theory, nor has PAS been subjected to meaningful peer review or publication. In fact, experts in the field have widely discredited the theory. The Comment then argues that PAS is dangerous because its wide dissemination in the legal community, via the PAS originator's self-published works, lends an undeserved aura of reliability to the theory. Finally, this Comment recommends that PAS testimony be excluded, but recognises that in light of Daubert v. Merrell...

Further references (in chronological order)

(with thanks to Dean Hughson)

Articles by Richard Gardner

Gardner, R. A. (1985), Recent trends in divorce and custody litigation.The Academy Forum, 29(2)3-7. New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.

Gardner, R. A. (1987), Child Custody. In Basic Handbook of Child Psychiatry, ed. J. Noshpitz, Vol. V, pp. 637- 646. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Gardner, R. A. (1987), Judges interviewing children in custody/visitation litigation. New Jersey Family Lawyer, 7(2):26ff.

Gardner, R. A. (1990), Childhood stress due to parental divorce. In Stressors and the Adjustment Disorders, ed. J. D. Noshpitz and R. D.Coddington, pp. 43-59. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Gardner, R. A. (1991), Legal and psychotherapeutic approaches to the three types of parental alienation syndrome families: when psychiatry and the law join forces. Court Review, 28(1):14-21.

Gardner, R. A. (1997), Recommendations for dealing with parents who induce a parental alienation syndrome in their children. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 8(3):206-211.

Gardner, R. A. (1997), Recommendations for dealing with parents who induce a parental alienation syndrome in their children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 28(1/2): (in press)

Other articles devoted entirely to PAS

Palmer, N.R. (1988), Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(4):361-363.

Goldwater, A. (1991). Le syndrome d'alienation parentale (in English). In Developpements recents en droit familial (pp. 121-145). Cowansville, Quebec:Les Editions Yvon Blais.

Levy, D. (1992), Review of parental alienation syndrome: a guide for mental health and legal professionals. American Journal of Family Therapy, 20(3):276-277.

Cartwright, G.F. (1993). Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(3):205-215.

Dunne, J. and Hedrick, (1994), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 21(3/4):21-38.

Lund, M. (1995), A therapist's view of parental alienation syndrome. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 33(3):308-316.

Walsh, M. R. and Bone, J. M. (1997), Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Age-old Custody Problem. The Florida Bar Journal, LXXI(6):93-96.

Publications that focus significantly on PAS

Huntingon, D. S. (1986), The forgotten figures in divorce, and fatherhood: the struggle for parental identity.

Lampel, A. (1986), Post-divorce therapy with high conflict families. The Independent Practioner, Bulletin of the Division of Psychologists in Independent Practice, Division 42 of the American Psychological Association, 6(3):22-6.

Jacobs, J. W. (1988), Euripidies' Medea: a psychodynamic model of severe divorce pathology. American Journal of Psychotherapy, XLII(2):308-319.

Johnston, J. R. and Campbell, L. E. (1988), Impasses of Divorce: The Dynamics and Resolution of Family Conflict. New York: The Free Press.

Blush, G. J. and Ross, K. L. (1990), Investigation and case management issues and strategies. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations. 2(3):152-160.

Wakefield, H. and Underwager, R. (1990), Personality characteristics of parents making false accusations of sexual abuse in custody disputes. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 2(3):121-136.

Ross, K. L. and Blush, G. J. (1990), Sexual abuse validity discriminators in the divorced or divorcing family. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 2(1):1-6.

Thoennes, N. and Tjaden, P. G. (1990), The extent, nature, and validity of sexual abuse allegations in custody visitation disputes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12:151-163.

The California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law: Issues and Answers for Health Practitioners. State of California, 1991.

Clawar, S. S. and Rivlin, B. V. (1991), Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children. Chicago, Illinois: American Bar Association.

Wakefield, H., and Underwager, R. (1991), Sexual abuse allegations in divorce and custody disputes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9:451-468.

Patterson, D. (1991-92), The other victim: the falsely accused parent in a sexual abuse and custody case. Journal of Family Law, 30:919-941.

Maccoby, E. E. and Mnookin, R. H. (1992), Dividing the Child: Social and Legal Dilemmas of Custody. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rogers, M. (1992), Delusional disorder and the evolution of mistaken sexual allegations in child custody cases. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 10(1):47-69.

Ceci, S. J., and Bruck, M. (1993), Suggestibility of the child witness: a historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3):403-39.

Johnston, J. R. (1993), Children of divorce who refuse visitation. In Nonresidential Parenting: New Vistas in Family Living. ed. Depner, C. E. and Bray, J.H. London: Sage Publications.

Rand, D. C. (1993), Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a complex type of emotional abuse responsible for some false allegations of child abuse in divorce. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 5(3)135-55.

Sanders, C. H. (1993), When you suspect the worst: bad- faith relocation, fabricated child sexual abuse and parental alienation. Family Advocate, winter:54-56.

Ward, P. and Harvey, J. C. (1993), Family wars: the alienation of children. New Hampshire Bar Journal. March:30.

Garrity, C.B. and Baris, M.A. (1994), Caught in the Middle: Protecting the Children of High-Conflict Divorce. New York: Lexington Books (an Imprint of Macmillan, Inc.).

Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceeding (1994).American Psychologist, 49(7)677-680.

Hysjulien, C., Wood, B., and Benjamin, G.A.H. (1994), Child custody evaluations: a review of methods used in litigation and alternative dispute resolution. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 32(4):466-489.

Stahl, P.M. (1994), Conducting Child Custody Evaluations: A Comprehensive Guide. London: Sage Publications.

Turkat, I.D. (1994). Child Visitation Interference in Divorce. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(8):737-742.

Ehrenberg, M. F. and Elterman, M.F. (1995), Evaluating allegations of sexual abuse in the context of divorce, child custody and access disputes. In True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management. ed. Ney, T. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers.

Jones, M., Lund, M. and Sullivan, M. (1996), Dealing with Parental Alienation in High Conflict Custody Cases, Presentation at Conference of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, San Antonio, Texas.

Mapes, B. E. (1995), Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations. Brandon, Vermont: Clinical Psychology Publishing Co., Inc.

Turkat, I. D. (1995), Divorce related malicious mother syndrome. Journal of Family Violence, 10(3):253-264.

Adams, J. K. (1996), Investigation and interviews in cases of alleged child sexual abuse: a look at the scientific evidence. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 8(3/4):120-138.

Lampel, A. (1996), Children's alignment with parents in highly conflicted custody cases. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 34(2):229-239.

Campbell, T. W. (in press), Psychotherapy with children of divorce: the pitfalls of triangulated relationships. Psychotherapy

Clancy, Patrick, Attorney at Law,

David Cannon

Last updated - 12 July 1998

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